Zero-consumption buildings are buildings with very high energy efficiency and low energy demand covered to a very significant extent by renewable sources. The European Commission introduced the concept of cost-optimal and defined a comparative methodological framework to improve energy efficiency and achieve cost-optimal levels in buildings. The main steps of this study were:
  • Identification of a basic reference building representative of a typical building stock in a country
  • Definition of technical variants related to envelope and systems
  • Calculation of global costs and energy performance
  • Financial and macroeconomic study
  • Identification of optimal solutions.